What is the Function of Our Kidneys? The kidneys are a very important organ in the body. They are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist, located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. The kidneys are responsible for getting rid of waste products, drugs, and toxins through our urine. Your kidneys also: Regulate electrolyte (salt) concentrations Regulate amount of fluid within the body Help regulate blood pressure Help maintain acid-base balance Produce hormones that affect blood and bones A kidney is composed of tiny units called nephrons Nephrons consist of glomeruli and tubules Glomeruli are small blood vessels that filter wastes and excess fluids Tubules collect the waste to form urine *When glomeruli become damaged, many problems can arise leading to glomerular disease.