Children with nephrotic syndrome may have trouble regulating their body’s water balance. This can cause fluid retention and swelling (also known as edema). The diet for a child with nephrotic syndrome will usually include a sodium restriction. It is important to check with your child’s nephrologist to find out how much sodium they should be consuming in their daily diet.
Sodium is a mineral found in most natural foods. Most people think of salt and sodium as interchangeable. Salt, however is actually a compound of sodium and chloride. Foods we eat may contain salt or they may contain sodium in other forms. Processed foods however, often contain higher levels of sodium due to added salt.
Sodium is one of the body’s three major electrolytes (potassium and chloride are the other two). Electrolytes control the fluids going in and out of the body’s tissues and cells. Sodium contributes to:
- Regulating blood pressure and blood volume
- Helps in regulating nerve function and muscle contraction
- Regulating the acid-base balance of blood
- Balances how much fluid the body keeps or eliminates
Why should NS patients monitor sodium intake?
Too much sodium can be harmful for people with kidney disease because their kidneys cannot eliminate excess sodium and fluid from the body. As sodium and fluid build up in the tissues and bloodstream it may cause:
- Increased thirst
- Edema: swelling in your legs, hands and face
- High Blood Pressure
- Heart failure: excess fluid in the bloodstream can overwork your heart making it enlarged and weak
- Shortness of breath: fluid can build up in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe
How can patients monitor their sodium intake?
- Read food labels, sodium is always listed.
- Pay close attention to serving size.
- Use fresh, rather than packaged meats.
- Choose fresh fruits and vegetables or no salt added canned and frozen produce.
- Avoid processed foods.
- Compare brands and use items lowest in sodium.
- Use spices that do not list “salt” in their title (choose garlic powder, instead of garlic salt).
- Cook at home and do NOT add salt
- Limit total sodium content to 400 mg per meal and 150 mg per snack
Printable Low Sodium Diet Guidelines (PDF)